This was a way to demonstrate how the cell works. I chose the killer-T cell,
The killer T cell is a cell that finds cells that a virus has infected. They look through the display window using their glycoproteins to tell if the cell is infected. It sends out proteins produced in the rough ER by the ribosomes to the cell delivered by the vesicles to perform “apoptosis” which is programmed cell death. This process takes time though, it takes 3-5 days for the T cells to reach the infected area. When they do they are very efficient killers and perform their cereal killing and yes that is the scientific name for it. This normally would work fine but when it comes to cancer it may not be able to kill the cell because a lot of cancer do not perform apoptosis.
In the project I worked with Hana and Lyra.
Our lab that we did was designed to see what conditions bacteria grow best. Proteins come from genes (one gene, one protein) through a transformation which is when the DNA reads the information and uses that to develop proteins. Our goal was to grow colonies of bacteria in our petri dishes.
We had to do many steps to prep and transform the bacteria. First, we started with a stator plate which was -LB. We add bacteria to the starter plate and put it in the incubator to help them grow. Leaving the bacteria to grow overnight. The next day we removed one colony from the start plate and placed them in calcium chloride. Both vials had calcium chloride. After stirring the bacteria we add pGLO to one of the vials to make one vial - (just calcium chloride) and the other become the + vail (calcium chloride and pGLO/Plasmid). After adding and stirring in the bacteria and pGLO. The next step is to heat shock the cell. First, we needed to put it in an ice bath for 10 minutes. It sets up a contrast and gets you used to the cold instead of a warmer temperature which sets up the next step. Next, we will put it in warm water (42°C) for 50 seconds. This opens the cells to let the bacteria absorb the plasmids. After the 50 seconds are up we placed it back in the ice bath for 5 minutes. This locks the cell membrane to trap the plasmids. After finishing this step we put them on the plates to make four different ones (-pGLO with ampicillin, -pGLO without ampicillin, +pGLO with ampicillin, +pGLO without ampicillin). The plates were then placed into the incubator overnight. The next day we looked at the results. Before we looked at them we made a prediction. Our hypothesis was that -pGLO without ampicillin will have more growth bacteria in the plate. The -pGOL with ampicillin will have very little in the plate because ampicillin is a solution to fight bacteria. +pGLO without ampicillin will have a little less than the -pGLO without ampicillin because it growing slower. The -pGLO with ampicillin will have very little growth or no growth at all.
Discussion 1 Hannah:
Our prediction was very accurate. As the plate -pGLO without ampicillin would have the most bacteria on the plate as it had nothing stopping it from growing. The plate -pGLO with ampicillin had a very little amount of bacteria. This plate didn’t grow much because the ampicillin fought the bacteria off and there was no plasmid that changed it. The plate +pGLO without ampicillin had a little less growth than the -pGLO without ampicillin because the ampicillin was fighting off the bacteria. The +pGLO with ampicillin had very little growth because the ampicillin was fighting it off but the plasma affected the cells and changed them.
It was Difficult to transform the plasma. Along with the bacteria not growing easily, we observed that the bacteria had to be not crowded and given room to develop and take in nutrients.
Discussion 3 Ryan:
In the “Helping T-cells fight cancer” video you gave it to talk about how they modified the T cells to make Car-T cells. Car-T cells are T cells that are injected with DNA through a disabled virus. The gene that is injected into them is to help detect cancer (lymphoma like in the video) that other methods would not detect. The T cells use glycoproteins on them to find and kill the cancer cells. It does not always work though because it causes you to get a fever of 104 to 105. This sometimes kills the patient and many do not survive. When they do survive the brunt of the fiver it is very effective at destroying cancer. In our experiment when trying to make the bacteria glow. We loosened the bacteria by putting it in hot water to absorb the genes. This works because when the membrane is loose it allows the genes to enter but when we cooled them down rapidly they would trap them inside. Even though we did the process correctly we were not able to get the results we wanted. In the end, we were able to learn from the process and show how we were you can motif bacteria in similar but different ways.